April Fools Day – Where and Why?

An April fool is still a fool, just one conditioned to only being a fool on one day a year – George Revere

Tomasz Glupi, not a name many people have heard of, yet today he is celebrated the world over by millions and has been for the past millennium, who is he? Well let me explain.
Quite often in our Blogs we use the term ‘shrouded in the mists of time’, this is basically because we like the term and can’t be bothered to think of anything else to adequately explain what we mean, basically lazy writing! But for once we don’t have to use this expression, because despite being a tale from over a thousand years ago, it is so well-documented, has its origins in central Europe and has long passed into legend.

Mieszko 1 of Poland

So let me take you back to 966AD, one hundred years before the Battle of Hastings, and the formation of what is now considered to be modern Poland under the Piast dynasty and the ruler Mieszko I. Mieszko was a Christian and was foremost in converting the country to Christianity. He was a strange man known to have a split personality, extremely intelligent but prone to rages one minute and moments of pure generosity the next. He was also known to be one of the biggest benefactors to a system promoting learning, education and health, centuries before the Renaissance. If anyone summed up the terms Despot and benevolent Dictator, it was Mieszko, and because of the great Icelandic scribe Ég Skrifa Rusl, his life is so well documented that it is known that De Vinci, Newton and Einstein to name but a few, all read his works and were started on some of their theories by his early principles. Novelists have also been affected, Robert Louis Stevenson’s with the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is perhaps the best known example of a modern interpretation of his life, but throughout the century’s literature has always touched upon his life. Chaucer’s Lionus et Richites is thought to be an elegy dedicated to Mieszko and Shakespeare long lost work the tragicomedy Menelaus and Griffinae was supposed to be based on Mieszko’s rise to power.

Thomasz Glupi

Perhaps no better example of Mieszko’s split personality would have been the execution and then beautification of Tomasz Glupi. Tomasz was born to peasant farmers in the area now known as Kuyavian-Pomeranian. He was a hardworking, intelligent lad who had one defining talent; he had an innate ability to make people laugh. He was described in a later work by the Danish historian Arild Huitfeldt as the archetypical jester, but perhaps this was a bit unfair on Tomasz, as he certainly was much more able than the classic Middle-Age jester. By the time he was twenty he was known locally as To Kompletna Smieci and was already coming to the attention of the local Baron and Overlord, Jak Rozparovač. The Baron, like most of the nobility that time, had to donate heavily, through taxes, to support Mieszko and the running of the country. He was perpetually broke and always looking at ways of increasing his income. He recognised the talents of Tomasz and bought him in to set up a series of Komedijos klubai across his territories. Komedijos klubai were small schools where pupils would learn about the basics of life and humour intending to help them better themselves. These were some of the first known schools in the western world and were based on Chinese Yǒuqù de xiǎo guīmó de xuéxiào, small schools of learning and humour, something that had never been tried before. Tomasz was ecstatic with this new task as it had been something he had been dreaming about from a very early age. Initially the premise was a good one, the local population would pay a small fee of one kupie nic to have their children educated. Unfortunately though the Baron was a greedy man and soon the fees became prohibitive and life ruining, especially to those locked into contracts. Tomasz was a good man and hated to see what was happening, but for fear of losing his life could do nothing, at least openly! But, being a clever man he soon set about discrediting the Baron and set about planning an elaborate scam to rid the country of Baron Rozparovač once and for all. At this time in Poland, Christianity was gaining a substantial foothold in the country but pagan beliefs were still widespread and legends and folklore still held a place in people’s thoughts and imagination. Tomasz played on this using his schools to start the rumour of untold riches to be found at the end of that natural phenomenon, the Rainbow. In the 10th Century no-one was able to explain the rainbow, being a Christian, Tomasz thought it foretold of terrestrial life never again being destroyed by a great flood, but he knew of the old pagan myths that the rainbow is the jewelled necklace of the Great Mother Ishtar that she lifts into the sky as a promise that she will never forget these days of the great flood that destroyed her children. By careful and cautious gossip he was able to convince people that untold riches were to be discovered at the end of a rainbow and it didn’t take long for this to be bought to the attention of Baron Rozparovač. The Baron was an avaricious man and despite being a recently converted Christian still held much of the old pagan beliefs to be true. True to form, when the next substantial rainbow arrived he mounted a great expedition to go in search of the treasure that lay at its foot. Encouraged by Tomasz he borrowed a fortune from moneylenders and had put all his remaining money in to trying to work out where the rainbow finished. He employed priests, soothsayers, seers and oracles from across the land for this purpose, all were coerced by Tomasz to make sure the Baron believed that the treasure could be found. Armed with all this knowledge the Baron set off on what was eventually prove to be a fruitless journey, gone for over five years he returned a broken man, his expedition having suffered disease, pestilence and famine and of course he found no treasure. In the intervening years Tomasz had founded a local co-operative that had flourished and become the powerful influence in people’s lives in the absence of the Baron. The Baron, broken and penniless, had to sell his land just to pay back the moneylenders and of course it was the co-operative and Tomasz who were the only people who could afford to buy it. The Baron became a laughing stock and would be forever known as the man who went looking for the treasure at the end of a Rainbow. While becoming a famous Polish folk hero, this was not the reason he is celebrated today, it took King Mieszko and his split personality to do that.

The locals were joyous, they had overthrown the Baron, they weren’t being taxed to high heaven and all was good with the world. Tomasz was a local hero and had married the Baron’s step-daughter, but Tomasz was about to suffer a cruel twist of fate. Unbeknown to him Mieszko was keeping a close eye on the Baron’s expedition for he had invested a large sum and was not happy at its outcome. He didn’t care about the Baron, but was enraged when he found out that it had been a clever ploy by Tomasz to ruin the Baron and that no such treasure existed. Four weeks after his 31st birthday Tomasz Glupi finally found out that having an innate ability to make people laugh and a natural gift for pulling off scams was not enough to prevent him being hung, drawn and quartered and his head being displayed for all to see on a spike at the City gates. The local people were distraught, Tomasz was a good man and hadn’t deserved this, they petitioned Mieszko, and the King, in one of his enlightened moments, saw that Tomasz had only the good of the people at his heart. He declared that Tomasz would be forever remembered on his birthday and that the day would be called Glupi Dzień, Tomasz was born on April 1st. Glupi would be forever known, perhaps unfairly for Tomasz, as Fool in English. But the joke was by him, not on him and his place in history remains, to this day, celebrated by everyone who plays a joke on April Fool’s Day.
For the full story, which extends to an epic of 997 pages please see Ég Skrifa Rusl full works, Ef þú varðst fyrir þetta, verður þú að trúa öllu.


The American War of Independence

The Colonies were not for us, they were a nadir of seething resentment and antipathy. Let the French have them for they will amount to nothing – George Revere

Blogs are strange creatures, when you start you wonder what you are going to write about, whether anyone will read them, and if they do, will they be interested? But they areas much about the writer as they are about the reader, and they do serve a purpose, even if it is only to satisfy the fundamental curiosities of the blogger. So with that in mind I apologise for occasionally veering off subject of family history and talk about other subjects, although to be fair, history, which is what I’m talking about today is intrinsically linked to genealogy and for those of us that are also social historians it is a natural leap to make. So here is my blog, a very concise one, on the American War of Independence, hopefully giving some interesting background to the events that took place this very day 236 years ago.

British warships forcing passage of the Hudson River.

History has always fascinated me, even when I was a callow youth taking my O-Levels I seemed to have some affinity for the subject. Of course it was physically impossible to cover all the events that had taken place over the centuries, even if I had just gone to school and not taken any other subjects, so vast swathes of historical facts and anecdotes have passed me by, one of those being the American War of Independence. I knew the basics, July 4th, 1776, George Washington etc, but I didn’t know the detail. Now obviously there are reams and reams of writings on the subject and I don’t intend to describe the whole war, especially from my biased point of view over here in the Mother country, I shall leave that to you. But here are some interesting facts (at least I find them interesting) that I really didn’t have any idea about when starting this blog, so this is just a taster to encourage you the reader to go and do your own research and learn something new.

Like all good wars and rebellions, the American War of Independence was one that started quite a few years before the actual hostilities in 1775. To Britain the colonies were a land to be exploited for the benefit of those at home but a certain independence was already occurring even in the earlier part of the 18th Century. Things started coming to a head after the Anglo French war of 1756-63. Part of the theatre of war was North America, and in protecting her assets and effectively ending French interest in that continent, Britain had spent a lot of money and it was felt that the colonies hadn’t contributed their fair share. A certain amount of restrictions were implemented from London causing resentment in America. At the heart of the division between the colonists and Britain was a fundamentally different concept of the purpose of the colonies. To the British, their American lands were there largely to provide raw materials to Britain and be consumers of British manufactured goods. This feeling expressed itself in an increasing control and restriction of American trade and industry that helped to build up resentment, especially in New England, where manufacturing goods for export to the southern colonies was already an important part of the local economy. In contrast, many of the colonists saw themselves as carving a new society from the wilderness, unrestricted by decisions made 3,000 miles away across the Atlantic. Along with various acts instigated by the British Government, such as the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act of 1765, the British pressed the colonists for more revenue. Ultimately it was the taxation of tea that led to the war starting, with the now infamous Boston Tea Party in 1773 (I’ll let you read up on that) and even then there was no thought of revolution, just protest against the British Government. However due to the strong arm tactics of and threats from the government what started out as protest ended up as a war!

Washington and Lafayette inspect the troops at Valley Forge.

But this local war, initially nothing but a skirmish, led to Britain losing her colonies and to what could only be described as a global war. Ironically the defeat of the French in 1763 removed any requirement of protection for the colonists, perhaps in some way leading them to believe that the British weren’t needed. Of course, the French loved a good rebellion, remember theirs was only 13 years away, and they jumped in with both feet on the side of the colonists, bringing to the party their allies, the Dutch and the Spanish. After secretly supplying the colonists with supplies and weapons from 1776 they became openly involved in 1778 and Britain soon had to defend her territories from concerted attacks by the French, Dutch and Spanish, and this included the very real threat of invasion of Britain itself.

Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown by John Trumbull, 1797

By 1782 the Americans and the French were beginning to gain the upper hand and the defeat of General Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown combined with the defeat of a British fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake led to wholesale loss of support for the war back in Britain, leading to the Prime Minister Lord North’s resignation and the Commons voting to end the war. Preliminary peace articles were signed in Paris at the end of November, 1782; the formal end of the war did not occur until the Treaty of Paris and Treaties of Versailles were signed on September 3, 1783. The last British troops left New York City on November 25, 1783, and the United States Congress of the Confederation ratified the Paris treaty on January 14, 1784.

So Britain lost its colonies, and while I’ve really narrowed down the actual events leading to this I did come across some facts that perhaps you didn’t know about the American War of Independence.

  • Along with the Colonies, Britain also lost Menorca (yes that Menorca where we Brits love going on holiday) in the Mediterranean.
  • At its height Britain had up to 30000 Germans fighting on its side.
  • With the French army entering the war to assist America, there were 29,000 Frenchmen fighting against the British, as against the 11,000 Americans.
  • Supposedly during the conflict the Royal Navy had a force of 171,000 sailors, of which 42,000 deserted.
  • Approximately 13,000 Native Americans fought on the British side.
  • France was the first country to recognize the United States, Morocco the second!
  • The first submarine attack in the history of world took place during the American Revolutionary war. The submarine, ‘Turtle’ was assigned the task of attacking a ship, ‘Eagle’ of the British navy. Unfortunately, the submarine could not complete its mission.
  • In 1779, the number of soldiers fighting for the cause of American independence were less than the loyalists – who supported the British force. As opposed to 3,468 people fighting for independence, the loyalists were 6,500 to 8,000 in number.
  • General Thomas Gage, in command of British forces in North America when the rebellion started, was criticized for being too lenient (perhaps influenced by his American wife).
  • At the start of the war a large number of British Commanders declined to take part including: General Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst who turned down an appointment as commander in chief due to an unwillingness to take sides in the conflict. Similarly, Admiral Augustus Keppel turned down a command, saying “I cannot draw the sword in such a cause.” The Earl of Effingham very publicly resigned his commission when his 22nd Regiment of foot was posted to America, and William Howe and John Burgoyne were both members of parliament who opposed military solutions to the American rebellion. Howe and Henry Clinton both made statements that they were not willing participants in the war, but were following orders.

Benjamin West’s famous painting of the American delegations at the Treaty of Paris. The British delegation refused to pose, and the painting was never completed.

And there you have it, a very short and concise version of the American War of Independence, so while the Americans celebrate Independence Day on July 4th it is worth remembering that the events leading to that independence really started today, 236 years ago.

Some further online reading if you are interested: